Assessing the Water Quality and Fish Diversity of Chengi River at Khagrachari
A Project submitted to the Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the B. Sc. degree in Environmental Science
ID NO: ENV 05405126
Department of Environmental Science
Stamford University Bangladesh
I am Arnab Chakma, hereby declare that the project report entitled, “Assessing the Water Quality and Fish Biodiversity of Chengi River at Khagrachari” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Bachelor Degree to the Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh. The project report or a part of it has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any degree or diploma. Any literature, data or work done by others or cited within this project report has been given due acknowledgement and listed in the reference section.
ID NO: ENV 05405126
Date: 18. 08. 2017
This is to certify that, the project report entitled, “Assessing the Water Quality and Fish Biodiversity of Chengi River at Khagrachari” being submitted by Arnab Chakma, ENV 05405126 to the Department of Environmental Science at Stamford University Bangladesh for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Sc. in Environmental Science, is a result of research work carried by him under our supervision. The analysis and results contained in the project report have not been submitted in part or in full to any other university or institution for the award of any degree or diploma.
Dr. Gulshan Ara Latifa
Professor and Academic Advisor
Department of Environmental Science
Stamford University Bangladesh
Date: 18. 08. 2017
Dr. Ahamad Kamruzzaman Majumder
Professor and Chairman
Department of Environmental Science
Stamford University Bangladesh
Date: 18. 08. 2017
Md. Humayun Kabir
Department of Environmental Science
Stamford University Bangladesh
Date: 18. 08. 2017
The project report entitled, “Assessing the Water Quality and Fish Biodiversity of Chengi River at Khagrachari”submitted by Arnab Chakma bearing ID. ENV 05405126 for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for Bachelor Degree in Environmental Science to the Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh.
Dr. Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder
Professor and Chairman
Department of Environmental Science
Stamford University Bangladesh.
Date: 18. 08. 2017
My Beloved Parents
I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave me the opportunity to complete this report.
First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to my almighty God who created me and guided me through proper way for my prosperity with blessings.
I am highly indebted to my supervisors Dr. Gulshan Ara Latifa, Professor and Academic Advisor, Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dr. Ahmad Kamurzzaman Majumder, Professor and Chairman, Department of Environmental Science and Md. Humayun Kabir, Lecturer, Department of Environmental Science, Stamford University Bangladesh for providing the definite direction, designing the project concept with professional guidance and constant encouragement from the beginning of the work and moral support in many ways during study period.
I would like to extend my thanks to all of my honorable teachers of Environmental Science Department who offered me invaluable assistance, support and guidance throughout my study.
I am extremely delighted to extend my special respect to Dr. K. Maudood Elahi, Professor and Pro Vice-Chancellor, Stamford University Bangladesh for his encouragement throughout the period of this work.
I sincerely appreciate the inspiration, support and help of all supporting employees of the department who have been involved in making my work easier.
A parallel increase between the human population and water demand is one of the many concerns related to water quality and quantity. Due to the scarcity of freshwater such as river, water pollution has become a global concern; furthermore, water quality depletion will lead to unhealthy natural resources and affect the overall environment. Khagrachari is a hilly district of Bangladesh where Chengi, Kasalong and Maini are the major river. The three sampling locations of the Chengi River of Khagrachari are Ganjpara is located between 23° 6´13´´N latitude and 91°58´72´´E longitude, Chengi Bridge is located between 23° 6´21´´N latitude and 91°58´13´´E longitude and the Rubber factory is located between 23° 7´34´´N latitude and 91°57´93´´E longitude. This study analyzes the physico-chemical parameters of the Chengi River and to compare the present water quality status with Bangladesh standards. The maximum temperature is 31.1°C in Rubber Factory and the minimum is 29.1°C at Ganjpara. Temperature is higher at different sampling station in the study site than Bangladesh standards (25 ͦ C) due to the direct hit of the sun. The maximum DO value is 5.8 mg/l at the sampling station at Ganjpara and the minimum DO value is 5.3 mg/l in station Rubber factory. So, it can be concluded that the DO value of the Chengi River is comparatively low than the Bangladesh Standards 6. The value of the Temperature and pH is higher than the Bangladesh standards and the value of other parameters are very lower than the Bangladesh standards.In the fish diversity of the Chengi river through field survey and sample collection. Both primary and secondary data have been used to conduct this research. In fish diversity 10 families belonging to 6 orders were recorded and identified by the fin formula. The order Cypriniformes occupied 40%, the order Perciformes which occupies 25% and the order Beloniformes, Siluriformes, and Cyprinodontiformes occupied 10% respectively in all cases. Eleven types of fresh water fish are collected in the Chengi River due to the highest pH value which is 9.7. This research provides a complete picture of the water quality and also the fish diversity of the Chengi River. It will be helpful for water resource management and planning.
Key words: Fresh water, Scarcity, Depletion, Water resource.
|CHT||:||Chittagong Hill Tracts|
|WHO||:||World Health Organization|
|BBS||:||Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics|
|INWQS||:||Interim National Water Quality Standards|
|NRCD||:||National River Conservation Directorate|
|SAR||:||Sodium adsorption ratio|
|MOH||:||Ministry of Health|
|MaMaSe||:||Mau Mara Serengeti Sustainable Water Initiative|
|WWTP||:||Wastewater treatment plant|
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand
Principal Component Analysis
Tinishu Akaki River
Millennium Development Goals
Total dissolved solids
Bangladesh Standard and testing Institution
Surface water treatment plants
Table of Contents
APPENDIX: Sample Collection and Instruments. 36List of Figures
Figure 1: Study area (Source: LGED and SOB, 2017)………………………………………………. 13
Figure 2: Percentage of population according to religion (Source: BBS, 2011)…………….. 15
Figure 3: Occupation of the study area (Source: BBS, 2011)……………………………………… 16
Figure 4: Sampling site of the Chengi River (Source: GPS based ground survey, 2017)… 19
Figure 5: TDS value of different sampling station at Chengi River…………………………….. 20
Figure 6: DO values of different sampling station of the Chengi River……………………….. 21
Figure 7: pH values of different sampling station of the Chengi River………………………… 21
Figure 8: EC values of different sampling station of the Chengi River………………………… 22
Figure 9: Salinity values of different sampling station of the Chengi River………………….. 22
Figure 10: Temperature of different sampling station of the Chengi River…………………… 23
Figure 11: Visibility value of different sampling station of the Chengi River……………….. 23
Figure 12: Turbidity value of different sampling station of the Chengi River………………. 24
Figure 13: Comparison between water quality of Bangladesh standards and the tested data………. 26
Figure 14: Showing (Lepidocephalichthys thermalis) the measurements of different parts of the body (Valenciennes, 1846)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Figure 15: Relative abundance of fishes belonging to different orders of the Chengi River. 29
Figure 16: Distribution of different families of fishes of the Chengi River………………….. 30
River water quality is a key concern as it is used for drinking and domestic purposes, irrigation and aquatic life including fish and fisheries (Uddin et. al., 2014). Khagrachari is a hilly district of Bangladesh. It has three rivers namely Chengi, Kasalong and Maini. The Chengi River is one of the most prominent rivers in hilly area of Bangladesh. It is the longest river in Khagrachari. It is originated from Tripura province of India. Khagrachari is located in the south- eastern part of Bangladesh (Hannan, 2013). In the east region of Bangladesh, it is considered to be the lifeline to business activities for both the hilly people and the plain land population (Ishaque, 2017). The river can play a vital role to contribute social economic structure of development as a developing country like Bangladesh. But the recent statistical scenario shows that water is polluting massively in the Chengi River due to disposal of untreated effluent from industrialization, municipality sewage, rubber factories, rubber dam, and riverbank erosion along with using excessive fertilizer for agricultural production due to which the water quality is polluting. Most of the farmers are depended on this river for their agricultural production. Man uses the water of this river for many purposes like drinking, irrigation, fisheries, domestic use, recreational purposes etc. So it is very important to know about the existing water quality of Chengi River.
Water is a unique resource because it is essential for aquitic life and it constantly cycles between the land and the atmosphere. The same water is also used for crop and animal production. Beside these, it can be shared with the public and the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (Cooper et. al., 1998). Water resources are of great environmental issues and studied by a wide range of specialists including hydrologists, engineers, ecologists, geologists and geo morphologists (Kumar and Dua, 2009). It has become an important issue for them as it affects not only human life but also the life of plant and animal. Chengi Rivers are one of the most potential sources of water that can meet the increasing demand of water throughout the Khagrachari district in dry seasons.
Water is the most important components amongst the natural resources and fundamental for the continued existence of all living organisms. The environment, economic growth and development of Bangladesh are all highly influenced by water and its regional and seasonal availability, and the quality of surface and groundwater. In terms of quality, the surface water of the country is unprotected from untreated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater.
The rapid population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standard are placing increasing pressure on all types of natural resources on the earth. The principal resources such as soil, water and air must be managed properly in order to ensure sustainable living environment, food supplies and transportation. The quality of human life is directly dependent on how well these resources are used and managed. In particular, management of water resource has profound impacts on society with regard to quality of life. All kinds of production such as agricultural or industrial directly or indirectly depend on water. Water crisis is increasing in Bangladesh in dry season due to heavy withdrawal of water at upstream. Indian water policy such as project of inter connection of river may lead to serious water crisis at dry season and flood at rainy season. This extreme phenomenon of water scenario should be managed in holistic approach.
The quality of water is of vital concern for mankind, since it is directly linked with human well-being. At present, the menace of water borne diseases and epidemics still loom large on the horizons of developing countries. Polluted water is the main cause in such cases. The major sources of water pollution are domestic waste from urban and industrial waste, which are discharged into natural water bodies (Ishaque, 2017).
The inexorable rise in demand for water to grow food, supply industries and sustain urban and rural population has led to a growing scarcity of freshwater in many parts of the world. An increasing number of rivers now run dry before reaching the sea for substantial periods of the year. In many areas, groundwater is being pumped at rates that exceed replenishment, depleting aquifers and the base flows of river. Increasingly, governments, corporations and communities are concerned about the future availability and sustainability of water supplies. This research provides a complete picture of the water quality of Chengi River of Khagrachari district and the deviation with Bangladesh standard.
Bangladesh is generally low-lying other than the hilly districts around Chittagong. The geographical feature of these hilly areas is quite different from the plain land. The land type characteristics of this region are undulating, erosive and sloppy with distinctive and specific characteristics of water scenario and sources compared to the remaining part of the country. Agriculture is the mainstay in the hilly region of Bangladesh. Agriculture not only provides livelihoods for the hilly people but also supplies raw material for industry and is therefore the main vehicle for rural development and poverty alleviation. Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) is the only extensive hill area in Bangladesh and it is located in the southern eastern part of Bangladesh. The area of the Chittagong Hill Tracts is about 13,184 sq km, of which 92% is highland, 2% medium highland, 1% medium lowland and 5% homestead and water bodies (Bala, et. al., 2010).
The Chengi River is polluted in a number of ways such as excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural land; leaching from dumping waste, sewage, hospital waste, factory waste etc are considered sources of water pollution. Hence, regular monitoring of pollution levels in the river is indispensable. However, water scenario of the area is quite different from plain land to explore the potentialities and possibilities of water management of this area. This study was undertaken to evaluate the technical and economic performance of sustainable management of available water resources of unfavorable hill ecosystems in order to boost up crop production as well as to uphold healthy environment and ecological balance.
Water is one of the most important and abundant compounds of the ecosystem. All living organisms on the earth need water for their survival and growth. To fulfill the demand of growing population, different types of industries like rubber factories, rubber dam is developing rapidly in Khagrachari. Farmer is also using excessive fertilizer for agricultural production that polluting the water quality. Therefore, it is necessary to check the water quality of Chengi River at regular time interval. Because of the polluted water, human population suffers from various water borne diseases. It is difficult to understand the biological phenomenon fully because the chemistry of water reveals much about the metabolism of the ecosystem and explain the general hydro-biological relationship. Rising public awareness towards the development of any water resources as well as conservation will ensure future generation to have the opportunity of enjoying the beauty of Bangladesh. In the recent years environmental scientists of the country are interested to study the status of surface water bodies to assess the water quality and biodiversity for conservation planning of the wetlands (Trisha, 2017). This research provides the detail picture of water quality of Chengi River which would be helpful for water resource management and river management and also for the biodiversity conservation of flora and fauna.
The broad aim of this research is to analyze the water quality of Chengi River. To fulfill the aim, two objectives are identified.
- a) To assess the water quality of the Chengi River and compare the present water quality status with Bangladesh standards.
- b) To identify the fish diversity of the study area.
Environmental quality means a particular condition of physical environment, economic environment, social environment and so on (Parvin, 2007). Chengi River is a very influential river for the people of the hilly district of Khagrachari. Lots of people are depending on this river for their livelihood. But, day by day manufacturing factories are rubber processing plant, rubber dam, and extra sand extraction activity polluting the river. So it is very essential and important to test the quality of water before it is used drinking, domestic, agriculture, or industrial purposes. Biodiversity of the fish is decreasing day by day as the water is polluting by different factors. Water must be tested with different physico-chemical parameters. We need to understand water quality in order to protect our health, to save our biodiversity of the fish and another aquatic flora and fauna also the health of ecosystems.
But there are other important reasons to study water quality. Every living thing on earth needs water to survive. Human bodies are made up of more than 60 percent water. We use clean water to drink, grow crops for food, operate factories, and fishing etc (Kellyy, 2010). Monitoring the quality of surface water will help to protect our water pollution. Farmers can use the information to help better manage their land and crops. Problem had been researching and monitoring information to help control pollution levels. We could use this information to understand exactly how we impact our water supply and to help us understand the important role for water conservation.
Each water body can contain dramatically different levels of pollution. Water quality issues influence human and environmental health, so the more we monitor our water the better we will be able to recognize and prevent contamination problems.
A literature review is a search and evaluation of the available literature in any subject or chosen topic area. It documents the state of the art with respect to the subject or topic you are writing about. A literature review has four main objectives: it surveys the literature in your chosen area of study, It synthesizes the information in that literature into a summary, it critically analyses the information gathered by identifying gaps in current knowledge; by showing limitations of theories and points of view; and by formulating areas for further research and reviewing areas of controversy, it presents the literature in an organized way (Royal Literary Fund, 2017).
A literature review shows your readers that you have an in-depth grasp of your subject; and that you understand where your own research fits into and adds to an existing body of agreed knowledge. Here’s another way of describing those four main tasks. A literature review: Demonstrates a familiarity with a body of knowledge and establishes the credibility of your work; Summaries prior research and says how your project is linked to it; integrates and summarizes what is known about a subject; demonstrates that you have learnt from others and that your research is a starting point for new ideas (Royal Literary Fund, 2017).
Alam et. al., (2007) stated on their article entitled “Water quality parameters along rivers” that the river was found to be highly turbid in the monsoon season. But BOD and fecal coliform concentration was found higher in the dry season. This study involves determination of physical, biological and chemical parameters of surface water at different points. The water was found slightly acidic. The mean values of parameters were Conductivity 84-805µs; DO: dry- 5.52 mg/L, monsoon-5.72 mg/L; BOD: dry-1 mg/L, monsoon-0.878 mg/L; Total Solid: dry-149.4 mg/L, monsoon- 145.7 mg/L. A model study was also conducted and values of different model parameters were estimated.
Aris et. al., (2014) described on their article entitled “Water Quality Status of Selected Rivers in Kota Marudu, Sabah, Malaysia and its Suitability for Usage” that most of the variables were within the drinking water quality standards stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysia except for turbidity. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity hazard were calculated to identify the suitability of the water as irrigation water. The Wilcox diagram classifies that only 10% of samples are not suitable for the purpose of irrigation. The overall results showed that most of the rivers in Kota Marudu are still in a clean condition and suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes except for Sumbilingan River, which is considered as slightly polluted. The results are supported by the hierarchical cluster analysis as the stations were grouped into two groups; low and high pollution intensities. This preliminary result can update the baseline data of selected water quality parameters in the Kota Marudu and could serve as tool for assisting relevant government bodies in regulating the water resources policies in the future.
Abegaz (2007) pointed out on his article entitled “Pollution status of Tinishu Akaki River and its tributaries (Ethiopia) evaluated using physicochemical parameters, major ions, and nutrients”. He provides data on physico-chemical parameters, some major ions and nutrients on water samples of Tinishu Akaki River (TAR), Ethiopia. The pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- , SO42-, NO3- , NO2- , PO43-, Cland NH3 have been determined to assess the chemical status and pollution levels of the TAR and its tributaries. The values of certain parameters have been evaluated with respect to the acceptable standard limits for drinking and surface water to indicate the pollution level of the TAR. Increasing in BOD, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate and decreasing in DO concentrations downstream of the TAR were observed with increasing domestic, industrial and agricultural activities. The mean Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- , SO42-, HCO3- , NO3- and PO43- concentrations exceeded their most common natural concentrations’ (MCNC) in world rivers by a factor of 6.3, 7.6, 27.2, 6.8, 9.2, 19 and 390, respectively.
Christopher et. al., (2012) described on their article entitled “Water Quality Status of River Yamuna in Delhi with reference to Presence of heavy Metals: A Review”. That which are harmful and toxic at high concentrations affecting aquatic animals as well as human life. The article reviews the present status of Yamuna and describes the major studies across this topic. Emphasis has been laid on the waters entering Delhi region and the control exerted by the Government. The water quality of Yamuna at the point of its entry into Delhi fits to water quality standards in terms of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).
Effendi et. al., (2015) described on their article entitled “Water Quality Status of Ciambulawung River, Banten Province, Based on Pollution Index and NSF-WQI” that Ciambulawung River is located in Lebakpicung Kampong close to Halimun Salak National Park. Ciambulawung River is used for micro-hydro power plant (capacity 10.000 Watt). The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality status of Ciambulawung River. The pollution index ranged 0.56-0.78 and NSF-WQI ranged 87-88. Hence the river water quality is considered good. Based on these indices it is concluded that communities living along river bank and micro-hydro power plant did not negatively affect the water quality of Ciambulawung River.
Meurs, (2015) described on his article entitled “Water is life: The Current Status of the Mara River in Kenya” That the on-going dry season has put a lot of stress on the Mara River Basin and other parts of the region. The Mara River and its two main tributaries, the Amala and the Nyangores, have recorded some of the lowest discharge levels in a decade. The Mau Mara Serengeti Sustainable Water Initiative (MaMaSe) lead by IHE Delft aims to ensure that key forests and savannah eco-systems are protected or restored and wildlife as well as people has access to habitats and water resources needed at different times of the year, especially during periods of drought.
Rahman et. al., (2016) pointed out on their article entitled “Rivers and Lakes as Natural Heritage: Water Quality Status in the Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia” that this study was conducted to evaluate the changes of water quality in major rivers, lakes and dams in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Sampling was carried out in February 2010 and completed in April of the same year. The sampling consisted of 62 sampling stations located in rivers, lakes and dams in Perlis, Kedah and Penang. Readings were taken based on 11 hydrological and physicochemical parameters and the water quality status was classified under the Interim National Water Quality Standards (INWQS) which tabulated six levels of pollution ranging from moderate to extremely polluted in the order of I, IIA, IIB, III, IV and V. Results from the study show that most readings from the rivers which were located in forested areas and areas that have experienced less development in Kedah and Penang show moderate pollution between Class I and IIA. In urban areas, the rivers are categorised under Class IIB and III while in Perlis, upstream rivers are slightly polluted and categorised under Class IIB and III. However, the pollution level decreases in the middle area but increases gradually as it approaches the urban areas. This study would be useful to planners to ensure development will not interfere with rivers and lakes. As natural heritage, it is of the utmost importance to preserve these rivers.
Sengupta, (1999) pointed out on his article entitled “Water Quality Status of Yamuna River”. The objectives of the monitoring studies undertaken for water bodies are to assess variation in water quality with time, significance of various outfalls into water bodies, effectiveness of various steps undertaken for pollution abatement etc. With these objectives, Central Pollution Control Board is regularly monitoring the entire Yamuna river stretch along with major polluting sources since 1976. Several reports had already been published based on these monitoring studies. A project related with monitoring of Yamuna water quality under Yamuna action plan has been assigned to CPCB by National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), Ministry of Environment & Forests. The present report covers the findings of studies under NRCD project and National Water Quality Monitoring Programme of CPCB. The water quality status of River Yamuna presented in this report is for the period 1999- 2005. It is believed that this report would be useful to various agencies engaged in the work of restoring and preserving the water quality of Yamuna River.
Pradhanang, (2012) described on his article entitled “Water Quality Status of karra River, Hetauda, Nepal”. The study reveals that there is a considerable variation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate and phosphate and heavy metals, in the upstream, industrial and downstream water samples. These variations may be due to the change in the volume of industrial waste being added to the river at different sampling station. The study shows that upstream of the Karra River water sample is good but it enters the industrial belt, it gets loaded with pollutants mainly from industrial effluent. The water quality deterioration can be seen by looking at DO, COD, phosphate copper and zinc levels in the industrial belt along the river. As results become grossly pollutant, when it leaves the industrial belt, self purification process gets in to action a slight trend to improve is observed but still get polluted. These findings are important, not only for clarifying the present physicochemical pollution levels of the river but also for the development of national river management plans. Thus this baseline data are important in designing the management and conservation policies of the Karra River. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of HID needs further expansion and upgrading to improve its treatment performance so that sustainable use of the water from the whole industrial belt and is ensured for the downstream users.
Rennie, (2012) pointed out on his article entitled “A Water Quality Survey of the River Ouseburn”. Results provide strong evidence that point-source faecal pollution is occurring at two locations along the sampled stretch; Kingston Park Outfall, a previously identified malfunctioning storm overflow serving a mixed-use development in the upper limits of the catchment, and another location downstream. The effect of this pollution on a downstream bathing site has been analysed, concluding at high flows faecal contamination levels are unacceptable but generally pollution is heavily localised. From reviewing long-term water quality data faecal pollution has become significantly worsened despite lower rainfall levels indicative of further damage to the malfunctioning storm overflow. Potential solutions to combat the effects of the pollution have been analysed concluding soft-measures are a preferred option until an ecological impact assessment can be undergone to understand the impacts of the pollution to the aquatic and riparian environments where large-scale projects may become a necessity.
Tiwari et. al., (2006) described on their article entitled “Time Scale Changes in the Water Quality of the Ganga River, India and Estimation of Suitability for Exotic and Hardy Fishes”. The minimum temperature (17°C) was recorded in winter season. The pH, TDS, EC, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, BOD and COD values exhibited their minimum at Allahabad site. The chloride and dissolved oxygen were recorded minimum at Kanpur site while alkalinity and total hardness had their lowest values at Varanasi site. The water quality of the Kanpur site was very poor compared to Varanasi and Allahabad sites. However, the Ganga river waters could host some tolerant fish species such as the exotic Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus and also catfishes. All these species are very hardy, in respect of poor water quality, thus they (exotic species) have powerfully invaded in degraded systems worldwide.
Trisha, (2017) described on her article entitled Conservation of freshwater resources has now become an issue of global concern because water is one of the vital resources to the modern society. Bangladesh, because of its geographical location holds adequate reserves of freshwater but due to excessive population pressure very few of water bodies retain good water quality and aquatic biodiversity.
UNU (2016) stated on their article entitled “Current Water Quality Status of Rivers in the Kathmandu Valley” that the condition of the rivers in the Kathmandu Valley has been rapidly degrading. Several governmental and nongovernmental institutions, civil society organizations and other stakeholders are working to improve the environmental conditions of these rivers. This study analyses the current water quality status of the Kathmandu Valley river system. River water on the outskirts of the valley was found to be suitable for aquatic life, bathing and irrigation; some treatment is, however, necessary if it is to be used as drinking water. However, the water quality in the core urban area was found to be extremely poor and unsuitable for sustaining a healthy water ecosystem.
Vandervoort (2007) pointed out on his article entitled “The Status of Water Quality in the Rivers and Tributaries of the Shenandoah River Watershed”. The samples were analyzed on a bi-monthly basis at The Friends of the Shenandoah River laboratory at the Shenandoah University in Winchester, Virginia. The University has been very helpful in providing lab space to The Friends of the Shenandoah River. The picture that emerges from Charles’ hard work is not necessarily a pretty one, but it is a very important one. Every person wants to feel that they are leaving a “real service” as a legacy and Charles has done just that. He first started these reports as a county-by-county description of the Shenandoah River and its’ tributaries as it meanders through each county. This report is the final chapter describing the whole watershed as the river flows north from Waynesboro, Virginia through the Shenandoah Valley to the West Virginia border. It is a true legacy because from now on whenever anybody needs to know exactly what the water quality levels were at this point in time; all they have to do is read Charles’ report.
Welagedara, et. al., (2014) described on their article entitled “Comparison of Water Quality Status of Major Rivers in Srilanka”. Consequently, six major rivers namely Mahaweli, Kalu, Kelani, Walawe, Menik and Gin were selected for this research study. The water quality data for Color, pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chloride (Cl-), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Bio Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Alkalinity for past ten years from these rivers were collected for the analysis. In addition to the univariate data analysis techniques, most importantly multivariate data analytical technique namely Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to understand the correlation between parameters. Cl- was identified as a surrogate indicator to represent the EC and total alkalinity concentration in water. In addition the use of PCA is recommended as a viable statistical data analysis tool in water quality studies.
WHO, 2001 ‘The quality of water, whether it is used for drinking, irrigation or recreational purposes, is significant for health in both developing and developed countries worldwide. Water quality can have a major impact on health, both through outbreaks of waterborne disease and by contributing to the background rates of disease’
Literature on water quality assessment needs to be enhanced. Relevant studies and research on Chengi River of Khagrachari is limited. Water quality assessment of Chengi River is very essential as most of the people of Khagrachari district depend on the water of this river for their agricultural production, industrial production and also for drinking water. If the water quality of this river degrades then the economic system of this area will collapse. But there are limited literatures those briefly explain about the water quality of Chengi River.
Various books and relevant journal plays important role for completing this present study. To gain an impression about the important aspects of the topic and to identify the relationship between concepts these literature were very essential. This provides an advanced understanding of the subject and its significance. It was helpful to identify the methods used in previous research on the topic and helps to work out how to answer the questions. It provides a comparisons for own research findings with other. It gives a theoretical basis for the research and determines the nature of research. The summery of the literatures above help to analyze the water quality of Changi River of Khagrachari district.
Water is a vital resource for human survival. Water covers 78% of the earth’s surface, yet water available for human use is limited (Rout et. al., 2011). Being a basic need of human development, health and wellbeing, safe drinking water is an internationally accepted human right (WHO, 2001), which has been enlisted as one of the ten targets in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Khagrachari is a valley district of Bangladesh. Chengi is the longest river in Khagrachari. Chengi River originated from Tripura province of India. To conduct this research, data have been collected from three stations namely ganjpara as S-1, Chengi Bridge as S-2 and Rubber factory as S-3. The water qualities have been collected in summer session. This research analyzes the water dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, electric conductivity (EC), salinity, visibility, and turbidity of the Chengi River and also compare the present water quality status with water quality values of Bangladesh standards.
The area of Khagrachhari Sadar Upazila is 297.92 sq km, located in between 23°00’00” and 23°21’00” north latitudes and 91°55’00” and 92°00’00” east longitudes (Figure 3.1).
Khagrachhari District is bordered by Tripura (Indian province) to the north, Rangamati and Chittagong district to the south, Rangamati district to the east, Chittagong district and Tripura (Indian province) to the west (Figure 3.1). It is under Chittagong Division. There are 03 Municipalities in Khagrachhari district named Khagrachhari, Ramgor and Matiranga. The number of in Khagrachhari district is nine, named- Khagrachhari, Mohalchori, Manikchori, Panchori, Luxmichori, Dighinala, Matiranga, Ramgor and Merung containing 38 Unions, 120 Mauzas and 1702 Villages (BBS, 2011).
According to physiographic of Bangladesh, the CHT falls under the Northern and Eastern Hill unit and High Hill or Mountain Ranges sub-unit. On the basis of the land forms, the physiography of CHT is divided into two parts. Such as-
- Mountainous region of tertiary period.
- Traces of Pleistocene period.
At present, all the mountain ranges of the CHT are almost hogback ridges. They rise steeply, thus looking far more impressive than height would imply. Most of the ranges have scarps in the west, with cliffs and waterfalls.
The region is characterized by a huge network of trellis and dendrites drainage consisting of some major rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal. The major rivers are karnafuli, sangu, matamuhuri and feni. Within the hill tracts, the Karnafuli has several important tributaries, of which Chengi, kasalong and Rainkhiang are the main ones.
The annual average temperature of Khagrachari district varies from maximum 34.6°C to minimum 13°C and the average annual rainfall of the district is 3031 mm (BBS, 2011).
The average annual temperature of the area is between 70° C to 360° C and average annual rainfall varies from 1500 to 5000 mm. But during last decade, the annual average rainfall has varied between 1900 mm to 2800 mm and shows a declining trend over last ten years (FAO, 2000). The annual temperature also increased during last decade varies from 140 C to 420 C. It also reported that the annual precipitation in the CHTs reduce from south to north over 90 percent of the land area during a period of 1980-2002 (Bai, 2006). So, it was observed that the temperature of the area increasing with the reducing rate of annual rainfall having a negative impact on the rural livelihood and economy. Most of the rural community is dependent on seasonal rainfall for their livelihood and agricultural crop production. Because of seasonal variation along with variation of annual rainfall and temperature, the farming system is hampered as well as reducing crop productivity which literally increases the vulnerability of the community. Additionally, the pest and disease infestation in farming system also increased which ultimately reduce the crop production but increase the production cost. The food security of the rural community is not meet by the farming practice even though agriculture is their main occupation. However, the community involved seeking employment move to other places, engaged in daily labour, and borrowing money from relatives and money lenders at high interest rate. The impact of climate change is interlinked with altering ecosystem strcture, reducing biodiversity and as well as other ecosystem functioning and services (IPCC, 2007). Recently it is reported that along with biodiversity reduction, water, food security, livelihood and health, which means the human wellbeing also interlinked with climate change impact (ICIMOD, 2010). With the purpose of adaptation the community seeking livelihood moves to the forest and involve in selling fuel wood and over-exploitation of natural resources. To combat this situation natural recovery and mostly community based adaptation is the most prominent means of the region.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) covers and area of 13,295 square kilometers of Himalayan range hills and hillocks measuring one tenth of Bangladesh. The major hill soils are yellow brown to strong brown permeable friable loamy, very strongly acidic and low in moisture holding capacity. However, soil patterns generally are complex due to local differences in sand, silt and clay contents of the underlying sedimentary rocks and in the amount of erosion that has occurred (Dewan et. al., 2014).
The total population of Khagrachari district is 6,13,917 (Male 3,13,793 and Female 3,00,124), sex ratio is 105:100, tribal and non tribal ratio is 52:48, population density 223 Sq Km. and annual growth rate is 1.54%, Muslim 53.45%, Buddhist 48.51%, Hindu 16.69%, Christain 0.27% and Others 0.08 (BBS, 2011).
The economy of Khagrachari district is predominantly agricultural. Out of total 116,475 holdings of the district, 89,333 (76.70%) holdings are farms and remaining 23.30% are non-farms (BBS, 2011). Despite the growth of agriculture activities, the non-farm holdings play an important role for the district. Farm-holdings produce varieties of crops, namely, local and HYV rice, wheat, vegetables, spices, cash crops, pulses, oilseeds, maize and others. Various fruits like banana, jackfruits, guava, coconut, etc are grown. Fishes of various species are caught from rivers, tributary channels and creeks and from paddy fields during rainy season. Besides crops livestock, hunting and fishery are the main sources of household income. The district is very rich in forest resources. Valuable timber and other forest trees are grown in the district. There are a variety of non-farm activities in the district. Main sources of income of this district are from agriculture 59.92%, non-agricultural labourer 9.33%, industry 0.44%, commerce 10.67%, transport and communication 1.11%, service 7.94%, construction 0.92%, religious service 0.24%, rent and remittance 0.37% and others 9.06% (BBS, 2011).
Three sampling site have been selected at Chengi River randomly for conducting this research. The sampling stations were denoted by S-1, S-2 and S-3 respectively. The water samples was collected at 9.15 am in S-1 (Ganjpara) and the second sample was collected at 10.25 am in S-2 (near Chengi Bridge) and the third sample was collected at 11.7 am in S-3 (near Rubber factory). The water samples were analyzed after collection.
The entire sampling site coordinate measured by the GPS tracker. Sample-1 at Ganjpara is located between 23° 6´13´´ N latitude and 91°58´72´´ E longitude, Sample-2 at Chengi Bridge is located between 23° 6´21´´ N latitude and 91°58´13´´ E longitude and sample -3 at Rubber factory is located between 23° 7´34´´ N latitude and 91°57´93´´ E longitude.
|Sample No.||Sampling Site||Time||Geographic Coordinate
|1.||Ganjapar||9.15 am||23° 6´13´´N||91°58´72´´E|
|2.||Chengi bridge||10.29 am||23° 6´21´´N||91°58´13´´ E|
|3.||Rubber factory||11.7 am||23° 7´34´´N||91°57´93´´ E|
Source: GPS based ground survey, 2017.
Water samples were collected from the Chengi river of Khagrachari in dry seasons on May 1, 2017 and tested for physical qualities and chemical contents. For further analysis samples were collected in 1.5 liter polypropylene bottles. Prior to sample collection sampling bottles were prepared as standard procedures. During the sample collection all sample bottles were labeled as required. Total three sampling stations were selected. GPS data were collected by GPS machine at the sampling sites.
Standard procedures were used to analyze the physico-chemical parameters of water sample. Visual inspection for visibility, GPS Meter (Garmin etrex 10) for geographic coordinate, thermometer (Eurolab ST9268B) (Graduated 0 ͦ C to 100 ͦ C) for temperature, DO Meter for Dissolved Oxygen, single electrode pH meter (Jenway pH meter, model 3305) for pH, EC meter (range 0-1999 µS/cm) for electrical conductivity and TDS (model TDS3/TEMP) meter (range 0-9990 ppm) for Total Dissolved Solids and salinity meter for salinity were used in the field for measuring some physico-chemical parameters. Photographs of all devices are given in Appendix A. For measuring the physico-chemical parameters standard procedure was followed according to the instruments manual and reading was taken after stable the reading.
For the statistical analysis and tabulation, Microsoft Excel 2007 was used in the study. All the graphs and tables were also illustrated by using this particular software. The statistical measures such as number and percent distribution were used for describing the variables of the study.
Research design is important because we rely on it to deliver the evidence necessary to answer the research problem as accurately, clearly and unequivocally as possible. A sound research design is the framework on which good quality research is built. What types of data, how will be presented in the research these everything includes and gives a conception of a research are described in this chapter.
Water samples were collected from the Chengi River of Khagrachari district during summer season and tested some physico-chemical parameters. Three sampling points were selected to collect data. The important water quality parameters, such as Temperature, pH, TDS, DO, Turbidity, EC, and Salinity are analyzed and also identified the fish biodiversity of the study site.
To conduct the present study Chengi River of Khagrachari Districts has been divided into three sampling stations namely Ganjpara as S-1, Chengi Bridge as S-2 and Rubber factory as S-3. First sample was collected at 9.15 am and second sample was collected at 10.25 am and the third sample was collected at 11.7 am on 1st May 2017.
The sampling locations coordinates are measured by the GPS machine. Sampling site one namely Ganjpara is located between 23° 6´13´´N latitude and 91°58´72´´E longitude, sampling site two namely Chengi Bridge is located between 23° 6´21´´N latitude and 91°58´13´´E longitude and the sampling site three namely Rubber factory is located between 23° 7´34´´N latitude and 91°57´93´´E longitude (Figure 4.1).
Figure 4.2 shows the Total Dissolve Solid (TDS) of the three sampling site of the Chengi River. Results reveal that the maximum TDS value is found in the sampling site three namely Rubber factory that is 53 ppm. On the other hand, the minimum TDS values are found both in the sampling site two (Ganjpara) and three (Chengi Bridge) that is 51 ppm (Figure 4.2). It is very interesting that the Total Dissolve Solid is same both in the S-1 and S-2. The TDS value of Bangladesh Standard for drinking water is 1000 ppm (ECR, 1997)which is very high than the Chengi River.
Figure 4.3 illustrate the Dissolve Oxygen value of different sampling station of the Chengi River. Standard value of the Dissolve Oxygen for drinking water in Bangladesh is 6 (ECR, 1997). But the analysis shows that maximum DO value is 5.8 mg/l at the sampling station one (Ganjpara) and the minimum DO value is 5.3 mg/l at the sampling station Rubber factory (Figure 4.3). So, it can be concluded that the DO value of the Chengi River is comparatively low than the Bangladesh Standards.
Figure 4.4 demonstrate the level of pH at different sampling station of the study site. According to ECR-97, the ideal pH value of drinking water for Bangladesh ranges between 6.5-8.5 whereas the maximum pH level are found at the sampling site three (Rubber Factory) that is 9.7 and the minimum pH levels are at the sampling station one (Ganjpara) that is 9.1. Fish cultivation and production of microorganism are very difficult at the Chengi River due to the high Ph value.
Electrical Conductivity of different sampling stations in the study site are slight different. Bangladesh standard of electrical conductivity minimum is 500 µS/cm, whereas the average tested result is low than the BD standard. The results reveal that maximum EC value are found at the sampling station two (Chengi Bridge) which is 135 µS/cm and the minimum EC value are at the sampling station one (Ganjpara) which is 131 µS/cm.
The below figure 4.6 signify the value of salinity at different sampling station of the Chengi River. According to the figure highest salinity level are found at Ganjpara that is 0.2 ppt and lowest is 0.1 ppt at the Chengi Bridge and Rubber factory. So, the salinity value are same both at the sampling station two and three.
Figure 4.7 illustrate the temperature of different sampling stations of the Chengi River. The result shows that maximum temperature is 31.1°C in S-3 (Rubber Factory) and the minimum temperature is 29.1°C at Ganjpara. Temperature is higher at different sampling station in the study site than Bangladesh standards (25 ͦ C) due to the direct hit of the sun.
Visibility represents the clearness of water. In the study site, the highest visibility value is seen at Ganjpara (S-1) which was 12 inch and lowest value was 9 inch at Rubber factory (S-3).
Figure 4.9 shows the turbidity value of different sampling stations of the Chengi River. The results reveal that turbidity values of the sampling sites are very higher than Bangladesh standard. Bangladesh standard of Turbidity value is 10 NTU where the turbidity value at the sampling station one (Ganjpara) is on average 30 NTU.
The World Health Organization has been in the forefront in developing water quality standards. The WHO International Standards for drinking water was first published in 1968. Drinking water criteria and standards have been developed by many countries in the world. Bangladesh developed the first water quality standards in 1976 based on the WHO 1971 International Drinking Water Standards. The revision of Bangladesh standards for drinking water was felt desirable after publication of the WHO drinking water quality guidelines. The Bangladesh Standard Specification for drinking water was prepared and published by the Bangladesh Standard and testing Institution (BSTI) for the control of drinking water quality. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of Bangladesh, adopted comprehensive water quality standards for drinking water by Gazette notification in 1997 as Environmental Conservation Rules under in Environmental Conservation Act, 1995. The drinking water standards of Bangladesh, 1997 are presented in Table 4.1.
|Parameter||Unit||Drinking water||Surface water||Irrigated water|
Most of the value of the physico-chemical parameters of the Chengi River is lower than the Bangladesh standard. Only the value of temperature and the pH is higher than the Bangladesh standards (Table 4.2).
|Water quality parameters||BDS||Station -1||Station-2||Station-3|
|Total Dissolve Solids (TDS)||1000||51||51||53|
The field study was conducted by paying field visits to the survey area. Sampling of fish species were done at some selected areas of the river. The fish were collected randomly selected representation spots of the above mentioned water bodies. During each field visit the same spots were sampled.
Collection and preservation of Fish Sample of specimens
For taxonomic and biometric study work a number of specimens were collected and preserved for subsequent laboratory study. Boats and trawlers were used to reach the sample location. The cast net, seine net, push net, dip net were used for collecting fish samples. The specimens were preserved in 5-10% formalin. For Laboratory use Scale, Vernier slide calipers, Forceps, Petri dish, Scalpel, and Hand gloves were used for the identification of the fishes.
Fish Data Collection
Data collected from the Morphometric and Meristic features, for Morphometric characters total length, standard length, Pre- dorsal length etc. were taken and for Meristic study the ratio of the different morphological parameters were taken (Figure 4.11).
Identification of Fish Species
The taxonomic study of identification of fish up to the genera and species of fish were indentified according to Talwar and Jhingram (1991) and Rahman (2005).
Morphometric study constituted of external morphology and measurement of external characters. External morphology included body coloration, shape of the body head, snout, mouth, inter- orbital space, fin description etc. Various part body is measured according to the body length ratio.
Legend: T.L = Total length; S.L = Standard length; P.D.L = Pre- dorsal length; H.L. = Head length; Pr.O.L. = Pre-orbital Length; P.O.L. = Post orbital length; E.D. = Eye Diameter; B.D. = Body depth; D.F.B.= Dorsal fin base; P.L. = Preduncle length; P.F.B. = Pectoral fin base; Pl.f.B. = Pelvic fin base; A.F.B. = Anal fin base.
Fish Diversity of the Chengi River
The fish samples were identified with the help of taxonomic key suggested by Talwar and Jhingram (1991). The order, family, scientific and the Bengali names of the fishes are given in the table 4.3.
|Order||Family||Scientific name||English name||Local name||Fin formula of the fish||Picture of fish|
|Siluriformes||Olyridae||Olyra longicaudata||Bannertail Catfish, Longtail Catfish||Bot Shinghi||D 1/7; P1 I/6; P2 1/5; A 18-19|
|Elopiformes||Ophichthidae||Pisodonophis boro||Rice Paddy Eel, Boro Snake-eel||Kharu, Hijra||D. 353; P. 113; A. 267|
|Cyprinodontiformes||Cyprinodontidae||Aplocheilus panchax||Top-minnows, Blue panchax||Kanpona, Choukkani||D. 7; P1. 13; P2. 6; A. 16|
|Beloniformes||Hemiramphidae||Dermogenys pusilla||Wrestling Halfbeak||Ek Thota||D. 9; P1. 10; P2. 6; A.14|
|Beloniformes||Belonidae||Xenentodon cancila||Freshwater Garfish, Needle Fish||Kankila, Kaikya, Kakila||D 15; P1 10; P2 6; A 18.|
|Cypriniformes||Cyprinidae||Barilius vagra||Vagra Baril||Vagra, Koksa||D. 9; P1. 13; P2. 9; A. 12|
|Cypriniformes||Cyprinidae||Puntius terio||One spot barb||Teri puti and Puti||D. 11; P1. 14; P2. 9; A. 8|
|Cypriniformes||Cobitidae||Lepidocephalus berdmorei||Burmese Loach||Puiya||D 2/6; P1 8; P2 6; A 2/5|
|Perciformes||Pristolepidae||Badis badis||Badis, Dwarf Chameleonfish||Koi Bandi, Napit||D. XVI/9; P1. 13; P2. I/5; A. III/7|
|Perciformes||Mastacembelidae||Mastacembelus armatus||Tire-track Spiny Eel||Baim, Sal Baim, Bain, Bamosh,||D XXXVII/82; P1 24|
|Perciformes||Gobiidae||Glossogobius giuris||Tank goby||Bele, Bailla||D1. 6, D2. 9-10, P2. 6, A. 9-10|
During the study period a total of 120 fishes were collected. The fishes are belongs to 6 orders and 10 families (Table 4.3). Among the collected species, Oder Cypriniformes was recorded as most diversified fish group in terms of both number of sepeies and individual. The relative abundance of fishes is belonging to different families (Table 4.3). The order Cypriniformes occupied 40% and next abundance order Perciformes which occupies 25% and the rest of the order such as the order Beloniformes, Siluriformes, and Cyprinodontiformes occupied 10% respectively. The order Elopiformes occupied only 5 % (Figure 4.12).
The order Cypiniformes having four families namely Psilorhynchidac, Cyprinidac, Cobitidac, and Balitoridac having 10% respectively. The order Beloniformes having two families Belonidae and Hemiramphidae having 5% respectively. The order Elopiformes having only one family namely Ophichthidae and the percentage is 5%. The order Perciformes having three families namely Mastacembelidae, Pristolepidae, and Gobiidae and the percentage is 10, 10 and 5 respectively. The order Siluriformes having one family namely Olyridae, the percentage is 10. The remaining order namely Cyprinodontiformes having only one family namely Cyprinodontidae the percentage is 10.
Chengi River is precious assets of Khagrachari District with unique regional Characteristics. From the overall analysis it became evident that all the water quality parameters. The DO, TDS, EC, Salinity, Temperature, Visibility, Turbidity, remains in the Bangladesh standard range during summer season which is a good sign. The pH increase to a large extent during the summer period of the year which is very alarming for the aquatic and both human life. The continuous waste dumping, sewage disposal, overhanging latrines, waste from slaughterhouses, continuous land grabbing etc are making the situation more critical day by day. So it is high time for the authority to focus on these problem sources and come forward with mitigating measures.
Chengi is an important river of Bangladesh. It is feeding the city in many ways and plays an important role in the communication system of the whole region. The river of Chengi is losing its water quality day by day. At present the river is under severe pollution threat. The chemical analysis of the water samples shows the water parameters have already exceeded their tolerance limits. Still there is time to control the pollution of the Chengi. To this research and monitoring of the water flow in the Chengi must continue. People should be aware of the possible threats on water pollution in the river.
Some recommendations to improve the water supply system of Khagrachari district may be listed as follows:
- More intensive sampling and analysis, including sampling of water from different depths and more spatial locations, would better describe the River water quality.
- Outfall discharge during both dry and wet seasons should be measured and analyzed more comprehensively in order to assess to effect of these discharges on River Water Quality.
- The flora and fauna of Khagrachari Chengi River should be carefully monitored in order to assess the effect of water quality on the local ecology.
- Preventing environmental threats before they turn into actual problems.
- Developing plans to protect areas where most cultural activities and recreation occur.
- Identifying new toxic substances, and implementing pollution prevention and control strategies.
- Preventing and controlling harmful discharges.
- Developing conservation strategies to protect native species and restore habitat.
- Implementation of right based approach in water production and supply.
- Devise and implement pro-poor water policies by taking climate change, future urban growth, consumer’s water demand and preference into consideration.
- New technologies should be incorporated to improve the quality and efficiency of surface water treatment plants (SWTPs).
- Proper awareness campaign through print and electronic media should be carried out to inform and to aware people regarding “right to water” and the reduction of the misuse of water.
- Developing water quality and ecosystem health objectives.
- Reporting progress to the public regularly.
Thought a combination of government intervention and increased of the importance and fragility of freshwater resources, pollution can be effectively managed in the future.
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